Cultural Competence, Diversity, & Social Equity


Managing Diversity (PUAD 704, Fall 13)

Dr. Heather’s Flipboard Magazines


Fem. Discourse


Race & Criminal Justice


Cultural Competence

“Culturally competent organizations are characterized as valuing diversity, engaging in self-assessment, understanding cross-cultural interactions, institutionalizing culture within organizational activities, and adapting service delivery (Cross et al. 1989)” (Wyatt-Nichol & Naylor, 2012, p.64)


The Diversity Dictionary (1996) defines diversity as differing cultures, languages, ethnicities, races, sexual orientations, religious sects, abilities, classes, ages, and national origins of individuals in an institution, workplace, or community” (Rice, 2010, p.86)

“Primary dimensions of diversity are factors that are unchangeable (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, age) and secondary dimensions are described as “malleable factors,” which may include marital status, parental status, educational background, socio-economic status, geographic location, and work experience (See Loden & Rosener, 1991)” (Wyatt-Nichol & Antwi-Boasiako, 2012, p. 750)

Social Equity

“The fair, just and equitable management of all institutions serving the public directly or by contract; the fair, just and equitable distribution of public services and implementation of public policy; and the commitment to promote fairness, justice, and equity in the formation of public policy” (National Academy of Public Administration, n.d.)


National Academy of Public Administration, Standing Panel on Social Equity in Governance.

Rice, M.F. (2010). Diversity and public administration (2nd Ed). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe

Wyatt-Nichol, H. & Antwi-Boasiako, K. (2012). Diversity management: Development, practices, and perceptions among state and local government agencies.Public Personnel Management, 41(4), 749-771.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. & Naylor, L.A. (2012). Human resource management practices that facilitate cultural competence. In Norman-Major, K.A. & S.T. Gooden (Eds.) Cultural competency for public administrators (pp. 62-79). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Recommended Readings

Alvez, J.D.S., & Timney. M. (2008). Human rights theory as a means for incorporating social equity into the public ad

ministration curriculum. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1),51-66.

Caudron, S. (1993). Training can damage diversity efforts. Personnel Journal, 72, 50-59.

Chemers, M.M., Oskamp, S. & Costanzo, M.A. (Eds.). (1995). Diversity in organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Cox Jr., T. & Beale, R.L. (1997). Developing competency to manage diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Fredercickson, H.G. (2010). Social equity and public administration. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Frederickson, H. G. (2008). Social equity in the twenty-first century: An essay in memory of Phillip J. Rutledge. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1), 1-7.

Gianakis, G. & Snow, D. (2008). Teaching “supply-side” social equity in MPA programs. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 14(1), 67-77.

Gooden, S. & Myers, S. (2004). Teaching social equity in the MPA: Reflections on the social equity symposium. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 10(2), 155-175.

Gurung, R.A. & Prieto, L.R. (Eds.). (2009). Getting culture. Sterling: Stylus Publishing.

Hubbard, E.E. (2004). The diversity scorecard: Evaluating the impact of diversity on organizational performance. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Kellough, J.E. & Naff, K.C. (2004). Responding to a wake-up call: An examination of federal agency diversity management programs. Administration & Society, 36(1), 62-90.

Konrad, A.M., Prasad, P., & Pringle, J.K. (2006). Handbook of workplace diversity. London: Sage Publications.

Levine, D. P. (2002). The ideal of diversity in organizations. American Review of Public Administration, 33(3), 278-294.

Mor Barak, M. (2011). Managing diversity: Toward a globally inclusive workplace (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage

National Academy of Public Administration, Standing Panel on Social Equity in Governance. 2005. Sounding the Call to the Public Administration Community: The Social Equity Challenges in the U.S. Retrieved August 30, 2008 from:

Norman-Major, K.A., & Gooden, S.T. (2012). Cultural competency for public administrators. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe

Pitts, D. (2009). Diversity management, job satisfaction, and performance: Evidence from U.S. Federal agencies. Public Administration Review, 69(2), 328-338 (p. 335).

Rice, M.F. (2010). Diversity and public administration (2nd Ed). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe

Rice, Mitchell. (2007). Promoting cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery: Utilizing self-assessment tools and performance measures. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 13(1): 41-57. (p. 43).

Rosenbloom, D. (2005). Taking social equity seriously in MPA education. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 11(3), 247-252.

Selden, S.C. (1997). The promise of representative bureaucracy: Diversity and responsiveness in a government agency. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Soni, V. (2000) A twenty-first-century reception for diversity in the public sector: A case study. Public Administration Review, 60(5), 395-408.

Sonnenschein, W. (1999). The diversity toolkit. New York: McGraw Hill.

Stockdale, M.S. & Crosby, F.J. (Eds). (2004). The Psychology and management of workplace diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Svara, J.H.& Brunet, J.R. (2005). Social equity is the pillar of public administration. Journal of Public Affairs Education 11(3), 253-258.

Svara, J.H. & Brunet, J. (2004). Filling in the skeletal pillar: Addressing social equity in introductory courses in public administration.” Journal of Public Affairs Education, 2, 99-109.

Thiederman, S. (2008). Making diversity work: 7 steps for defeating bias in the workplace. New York: Kaplan Publishing.

Thomas, R.R. (1991). Beyond race and gender. New York: American Management Association.

Thomas, R.R. (1992). The concept of managing diversity. The Bureaucrat, 20:4, 22.

Wooldridge, B. (1998). Protecting equity while reinventing government: Strategies for achieving a fair distribution of the costs and benefits of the public sector.” Journal of Public Management and Social Policy, 4(1), 67-80.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. & Antwi-Boasiako, K. (2012). Diversity management: Development, practices, and perceptions among state and local government agencies. Public Personnel Management, 41(4), 749-771.

Wyatt-Nichol, H., & Antwi-Boasiako, K.B. (2008). Diversity across the curriculum: Perceptions and practices. Journal of Public Affairs Education. 14:1, 79-90.

U.S. Department of Commerce and Vice President Al Gore’s National Partnership for Reinventing Government Benchmarking Study (1999). Best practices in achieving workforce diversity. Retrieved June 7, 2008 from:

U.S. Office of Personnel Management.(2005, September). OPM/HCAAF diversity definition and performance indicators. Retrieved January 15, 2009 from: resource_center/assets/Ropc_dm_kepi.pdf

U.S. Government Accountability Office (2005, January). Diversity management: Expert identified leading practices and agency examples. GAO-05-90, 6

Specific Dimensions


Acker, J. (1992). Gendering organizational theory. In Gendering organizational analysis.  Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 248-260.

Bearfield, D. (2009). Equity at the intersection: Public administration and the study of gender. Public Administration Review, 69(3), 383-386.

Burnier, D. (2012). Developing gender-competent public administrators. In Norman-Major, K.A. & S.T. Gooden (Eds.) Cultural competency for public administrators (pp. 83-99). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Bloom, B. (2000). Gender-responsive Programming for Women Offenders: Guiding Principles and Practices.  Forum on Corrections Research, 11(3), 22-27.

Chesney-Lind, M.(2006). Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice: Feminist Criminology in an Era of Backlash. Feminist Criminology 1, 6-26.

Cigler, B.A. (1990). Public administration and the paradox of professionalism. Public Administration Review, 50(6), 637-653.

Condit, D. & Hutchinson, J.R. (1997). Women in public administration: extending the metaphor of the emperor’s new clothes. American Review of Public Administration, 27(2), 181-197.

Conway, M.M., Ahern, D.W., Steurernagel, G.A. (2005). Women and public policy: A revolution in progress (3rd ed.).Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Cornwell, C., Kellough, E.J. (1994). “Women and Minorities in Federal Government Agencies: Examining New Evidence from Panel Data” Public Administration Review,  46, 265.

Correll, S. J., Benard, S., & Paik, I. (2007).Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty? American Journal of Sociology, 112, 1297-1338.

Currie, J., Thiele, B., & Harris, P. (2002). Gendered universities in globalized economies. Lanham: Lexington Books.

D’Agostino, M.J. & Levine, H. (Eds.). (2011). Women in public administration: Theory and practice. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett.

Dolan, J. (2000). The Senior Executive Service: Gender, attitudes, and representative bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(3), 513-530.

Fidell, L. S. (1975). Empirical verification of sex discrimination in hiring practices in psychology,” in R. K. Unger and F. L. Denmark, eds., Women: Dependent or Independent Variable, Psychological Dimensions:  New York.

Hutchinson, J.R. (2001). Multi-gendering PA: Anti-administration, anti-blues. Administrative Theory  & Praxis, 23, 589-604/.

Lewis, G. B. “Women, Occupations, and Federal Agencies: Occupational Mix and Interagency Differences in Sexual Inequality in Federal White-Collar Employment” Public Administration Review 54 (1994) 271.

McCurdy, A. H., Newman, M.A., & Lovrich, N.P. (2002). Family-friendly workplace policy adoption in general and special purpose local governments. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 22(1), 27-51.

Mills, J. & Newman, M. (2002). What are we teaching about gender issues in public affairs courses? Journal of Public Affairs Education, 8(2), 25-43.

Naff, K.C. (1994). Through the glass ceiling: Prospects for the advancement of women in the federal civil service. Public Administration Review, 54(6), 507-514.

Newman, M.A. “Gender and Lowi’s Thesis: Implications for Career Advancement” Public Administration Review. 54. (1994) 277.

Steinpreis, R.E., Anders, K.A. & Ritzke, D. (1999).The impact of gender on the review of the curricula vitae of job applicants and tenure candidates: A national empirical study. Sex roles. 41, (7/8), 509-528.

Stivers, C. (2005). A place like home: Care and action in public administration. The American Review of Public Administration, 35(1), 27-41.

Stivers, C. (2002). Gender images in public administration: Legitimacy and the administrative state (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Stivers, C. (2000). Bureau men, Settlement women. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Stockemer, D. (2008). Women’s representation: A comparison between Europe and the Americas. Politics, 28(2), 65-73.

Wilson, J. (1999). Professionalization and gender in local emergency management. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disaster, 17(1): 111-122.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. (2009). Blue-collar mother/White-collar daughter: A perspective on U.S. policies toward working mothers. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering. 11(2), 111-121.


Alfred, M. V., & Chlup, D.T. (2009). Neoliberalism, Illiteracy, and Poverty: Framing the Rise in Black Women’s Incarceration. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 33(4), 240-249.

Anderson, E., Massey, D.S. (Eds.) (2001). Problem of the Century: Racial Stratification in the United States. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Bullard, R.D. (1990). Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and Environmental Quality. Westview Press, Boulder.

Brown, M.K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D.B., Shultz, M.M., & Wellman, D. (2003). White-Washing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. University of California, Berkeley.

Fothergill, A., Maestas, E.G.M., Darlington, J.D. (1999). Race, ethnicity and disasters in the United States: a reviewof the literature. Disasters, 23 (2), 156–173.

Frey, A. & Wilson, M. (2009).The resegregation of public schools. Children & Schools, 31(2), 79-86.

Fussell, E., Sastry, N., & VanLandingham, M. (2010). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, Population and Environment, 1(3), 20-42.

Henderson, L.J. (2004). Brown v. Board of Education at 50: The multiple legacies for policy and administration. Public Administration Review, 64(3), 270-274.

Landman, T. & Larizza, M. (2009). Inequality and human rights: Who controls what, when, and how. International Studies Quarterly, 53, 715-736.

Pastor Jr., M., Sadd, J., Hipp, J. (2001). Which came first? Toxic facilities, minority move-in, and environmental justice. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23 (1), 1–21.

Peacock, W.G., Morrow, B.H., Gladwin, H. (1997). Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disasters. Routledge, New York

Reiman, J. (2001). The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison, 6th Ed. Boston: Allyn And Bacon.

Saporito, S. & Sohoni, D. (2006). Coloring outside the lines: Racial segregation in public schools and their attendance boundaries. Sociology of Education, 79, 81-105.

Tonry, M. (2011). Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Western, B., Pettit, B., (2005). Black–white wage inequality, employment rates, and incarceration. American Journal of Sociology, 111 (2), 553–578.

Wilson, W.J. (2009). More than just race: Being black and poor in the inner city. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Zottarell, L.K. (2008). Post-Hurricane Katrina Employment Recovery: The Interaction of Race and Place Social Science Quarterly.

Sexual Orientation

Babst, G.A., Gill, E.R., & Pierceson, J. (Eds.) (2009). Moral argument, religion, and same-sex marriage. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Borrego, E.A. & Johnson III, R.G. (2013). Has public administration grown up? A case for sexual orientation/gender identity and the intersection of public administration in the 21st century. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 1-4.

Borrego, E.A. (2013). Will cultural competence lead us out of the intersection of sexual orientation/gender identity or leave us stalled? Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 51-64.

Brown, S.L., & Goode-Cross, D.T. (2013). Same-sex marriage and the challenge of liberalism: A case of ideological drift. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 91-105.

Herman, J.L. (2013). Gendered restrooms and minority stress: The public regulation of gender and its impact on transgender people’s lives. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 65-80.

Moran, D. (2013). Leading the way in policy implementation: An examination of how the United States marine Corps has managed the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell repeal. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 81-90.

Johnson III, R.G. (2013). The importance of social movements and the intersection of social equity: Marriage equality and RACING towards justice. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 19-30.

Norman-Major, K. & Becker, C. (2013). Walking the talk: Do public systems have the infrastructure necessary to implement and enforce LGBT and gender identity rights? Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 19(1), 31-50.

Oldfield, K. & Johnson III, R.G. (Eds.). (2008). Resilience: Queer Professors from the working class. Albany: SUNY Press.

Swan, W., French, M. & Norman-Major, K.A. (2012). Cultural competency around sexual and gender orientation and identity. In Norman-Major, K.A. & S.T. Gooden (Eds.) Cultural competency for public administrators (pp. 141-169). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Whitehead, J.C. (2012). The nuptial deal: Same-sex marriage & Neo-liberal governance. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. & Naylor, L. (2013). The policy landscape of sexual orientation. Journal of Public Management and Social Policy, 19(1), 5-18.

Social Class

Aries, E. (2008). Race and class matters at an elite college. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Bartels, L. M. (2005). Homer gets a tax cut: Inequality and public policy in the American mind. Perspectives on Politics, 3(1), 15-31.

Gilbert, D. (2002). The American class structure: In an age of growing inequality. Belmont: Wadsworth.

Gittleman, M. & Joyce. M. (1995). Earnings mobility in the United States, 1967-1991. Monthly Labor Review. Retrieved February 2000 from:

Gottschalk, P. (1997). Inequality, income growth, and mobility: The basic facts. The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 11(2), 21-40.

Hacker, J.S. & Pierson, P. (2010). Winner-take-all politics: How Washington made the rich richer—and turned its back on the middle class. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Keller, B. (2005). Class matters. New York: Times Books.

Madland, D.(2011). Growth and the middle class. Democracy: A Journal of Ideas, 20, 16-22.

Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Shierholz, H. (2009). The state of working America: 2008-2009. Ithica: ILR Press.

Isaacs, J. B. (2007, November). Economic mobility of families across generations. Economic Mobility Project, Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved March 15, 2008 from:

Jencks, C., Peterson, P.E. (Eds.), 1991. The Urban Underclass. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC

Krugman, P. (2002, October 20). For richer: How the permissive capitalism of the boom destroyed American equality. The New York Times.  Retrieved August 30, 2008 from:

Oldfield, K. (2012). Class Rooms. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 29-50.

Oldfield, K. (2007). Achieving social class diversity through the workforce: A case study of TIAA-CREF. In K. Cahill & L. Johannessen, L. (Eds.), Considering class: Essays on the discourse of the American dream. Transnational and Transatlantic American Studies.

Oldfield, K, Candler, G. & Johnson, R.G. (2006). Social class, sexual orientation, and toward proactive social equity scholarship. American Review of  Public Administration, 36(2), 156-172.

Oldfield, K. (2003). Social class and public administration: A closed question opens. Administration & Society, 35(4), 438-461.

Pebley, A.R., & Sastry, N. (2004). Neighborhoods, poverty, and children’s well-being. In K.M. Neckerman (Ed.), Social Inequality (pp. 119-145). New York: Russell Sage Foundation,

Raines, J. & McAdams, C.B. (2006). College and social class: The broken promise of America. Cross Currents, 56(1). Retrieved March 15, 2008 from:

Reich, R.B. (2011). Aftershock: The next economy & America’s future. New York: Vintage Books.

Sawhill, I. & Condon, M. (1992). Is U.S. income inequality really growing?: Sorting out the fairness question. Policy Bites. The Urban Institute.

Sawhill, I. & McMurrer, D.P. (1996). How much Do Americans move up and down the economic ladder? Number 3 in Series, Opportunity in America. The Urban Institute. Retrieved February 2000 from:

Schultz, D. (2012). Blue-collar teaching in a white-collar university. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 67-86.

Simrell King, C. (2012). What’s a girl like you doing in a place like this? Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 51-66.

Stevens, M.L. (2007). Creating a class: College admissions and the education of elites. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Stiglitz, J.E. (2013). The price of inequality: how today’s divided society endangers our future. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Wamsley, G. L. (2012). Moving forward by looking back. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 87-106.

Webster, B. & Bishaw, A. (2007). Income, earnings, and poverty: Data from the 2006 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. (2012). A view from the 50th street gate on Washington Avenue:  Reflections of a working class academic. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 18(1), 17-28.

Wyatt-Nichol, H., Brown, S.A., Haynes, W. E. (2011). Social class and socioeconomic status:  Relevance and inclusion in MPA/MPP Programs. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 17(2): 187-208.

Wyatt-Nichol, H. (2011). The enduring myth of the American Dream: Mobility, marginalization, and hope. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 14(2):258-279.